Pro-social/Multi-age Research & Resources

Pro-Social Learning Environments

Programs That Teach Emotional Intelligence in Schools Have Lasting Impact
“Teaching social-emotional learning in schools is a way to support individual children in their pathways to success, and it’s also a way to promote better public health outcomes later in life.  Read more >>

The Impact of Enhancing Students Social and Emotional Learning: A Meta-Analysis of School-Based Universal Interventions
Compared to controls, SEL participants demonstrated significantly improved social and emotional skills, attitudes, behavior, and academic performance that reflected an 11-percentile-point gain in achievement. School teaching staff successfully conducted SEL programs.”  Read more >>

Promoting Positive Youth Development Through School‐Based Social and Emotional Learning Interventions: A Meta‐Analysis of Follow‐Up Effects
This meta‐analysis reviewed 82 school‐based, universal social and emotional learning (SEL) interventions involving 97,406 kindergarten to high school students Follow‐up outcomes (collected 6 months to 18 years post-intervention) demonstrate SEL’s enhancement of positive youth development.” Read more >>

Early Adolescents’ Emotional Well‐Being in the Classroom: The Role of Personal and Contextual Assets
“The goal of this study was to investigate pathways through which individual and contextual assets in the classroom are linked to early adolescents’ emotional well-being in school. Emotional well-being encompasses individuals’ tendency to be satisfied with life, experience life positively, feel self-confident, think positively, and cope with problems effectively.” Read more >>

Research Institutes

Multi-age Classrooms

CEA Research Study on the Multi-grade Classroom, The Multi-grade Classroom: Myth and Reality, A Canadian Study
“The message is clear: educators need to take multi-grades as seriously as they do single-grades. This means giving priority to a pedagogical approach to the structure and organization of such classrooms, to the creation of different curricula and support material and the possibility of a reduced load for teachers of multi-grade classes.”

Split-grade and Multi-age Classes: A review of the Research and a Consideration of the BC Context
“The philosophy that students benefit from the range and diversity possible with multi-age groupings is reflected in the work of Gaustad (1997), who argued that: ‘Research indicates that heterogeneous grouping promotes cognitive and social growth, reduces anti-social behaviour, and facilitates the use of research-based developmentally appropriate instructional practices such as active learning and integrated curriculum.’” Read more >>

On the Merits of Multi-age Classrooms
“Research studies show no consistent benefits to age segregation, and some affective and social advantages from multi-age grouping. It is concluded that multi-age and multi-grade classrooms are socially and psychologically healthy environments.”

Children’s Social Behaviour in Relationship to Participation in Mixed-age or Same Age Classrooms
“Findings suggest a significant positive effect on children’s pro-social behavior as a result of participation in a mixed-age classroom context. In addition, fewer children appeared to experience social isolation in mixed-age classrooms than in same-age classrooms.” Read more>>

Valuing Diversity: The Primary Years
“Noting that children who learn to accept and value human diversity will develop the open, flexible approach to life that is needed in today’s world, this book examines ways to help young children learn to appreciate cultural diversity in the classroom.”